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The Telecom Digest for February 27, 2011
Volume 30 : Issue 50 : "text" Format

Messages in this Issue:

Abuse Suspects, Your Calls Are Taped. Speak Up.(Monty Solomon)
Re: BSTJ at Alcatel-Lucent website(Brent)
Re: Metro hangs up on pay phones(Adam H. Kerman)
VeriZon/GTE/Bell Atlantic/etc. (was VeriZon Screwed Me)(Mark J. Cuccia)

====== 29 years of TELECOM Digest -- Founded August 21, 1981 ======

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Date: Sat, 26 Feb 2011 18:11:22 -0500 From: Monty Solomon <monty@roscom.com> To: telecomdigestmoderator.remove-this@and-this-too.telecom-digest.org. Subject: Abuse Suspects, Your Calls Are Taped. Speak Up. Message-ID: <p06240817c98f38e3ee8e@[]> Abuse Suspects, Your Calls Are Taped. Speak Up. By WILLIAM GLABERSON February 25, 2011 The men charged with beating, stabbing or burning their wives or girlfriends have plenty to say. Lately, their words have been used against them in New York courts as never before. "I need you to prepare the kids to start lying," one man said to his girlfriend. He had been charged with burning her face with a hot iron as she knelt in view of their children. Another cooed "baby" to the girlfriend he was charged with grabbing by the hair and scratching with keys. "Whatever you do," he directed, "do not speak to the D.A." A third insisted to his brother that he was surprised at all the blood after he used a kitchen knife on the woman he had been with since they were teenagers. "I just stuck her like a little," he said. Since last year, every prisoner telephone call at every New York City jail, except calls to doctors and lawyers, has been recorded. And prosecutors have been mining the trove in all kinds of cases - they asked for copies of the recordings 8,200 times last year, city officials said. But there is one area where the tapes are beginning to play a central role: cases of domestic violence. The reason is simple. Once those accused in domestic violence crimes get on the jailhouse telephone, it turns out, many of them cannot seem to stop themselves from sweet-talking, confessing to, berating and threatening those on the other end of the line, more often than not the women they were charged with abusing. The tapes overcome one of the biggest hurdles prosecutors face in such cases: that 75 percent of the time, the women who were victimized stop helping prosecutors, often after speaking to the men accused of abusing them. ... http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/26/nyregion/26tapes.html
Date: Sat, 26 Feb 2011 02:58:59 -0800 (PST) From: Brent <brentbischoff@gmail.com> To: telecomdigestmoderator.remove-this@and-this-too.telecom-digest.org. Subject: Re: BSTJ at Alcatel-Lucent website Message-ID: <ce74813d-9216-4980-b9cc-49768bc7cc12@u12g2000vbf.googlegroups.com> Neal, Thanks for the update. Would you kindly share the URL for BSTJs on ALU? I didn't know they were there for public access. Thanks, Brent On Feb 25, 10:14 am, Neal Eckhardt <neale...@hotmail.nospam.com> wrote: > For those of you that enjoyed poking through the old BSTJs but got > frustrated by the slow... let me rephrase that... F'in slow response > times, time to rejoice. > > The website was down for about a week, but it is now back up with a > new look, and instantaneous downloads of documents. No more loading of > documents overnight.... > > Neal > > -- > Neal > > Everyone is entitled to their own opinion, but not their own facts. ***** Moderator's Note ***** A. Because it disrupts the normal top-to-bottom flow of a written communication. Q. Why is top-posting bad? Bill Horne Moderator
Date: Sat, 26 Feb 2011 18:19:33 +0000 (UTC) From: "Adam H. Kerman" <ahk@chinet.com> To: telecomdigestmoderator.remove-this@and-this-too.telecom-digest.org. Subject: Re: Metro hangs up on pay phones Message-ID: <ikbg7k$b0n$1@news.albasani.net> David Lesher <wb8foz@panix.com> wrote: >The 10 year contract between WMATA ("Metro") and Verizon [Let's >see, what WAS it named when they signed it?] expires in March; >and look like Verizontal will not renew. >Metro stations have been one of the last places in the DC area >to actually find a pay phone, as every station entrance has them >inside and outside the faregates. >For some unspecified period, WMATA will pay for one TTY equipped >phone at each entrance. >http://www.wmata.com/about_metro/news/PressReleaseDetail.cfm?ReleaseID=4798 At North Western Station in Chicago (Ogilvie Passenger Terminal officially, but no passenger has ever called it that), the owners of the office building that replaced the head house rearranged the first two floors for more retail space. There were two stub-end hallways at either end of the area in front of the doors to the train gates on the second floor that had a dozen pay phones on each side. They weren't used as often as they might have been as they were inconveniently located and signage was poor. I didn't actually notice that they'd been yanked out, but one of the hallways adjacent to the ticket office is leased to a barber shop with three chairs, and the one at the opposite end is just closed off. Not sure how they'll get a tenant in there. This is all on the second floor. On the first floor, there had been a few phones under one of the escalators where there was space but you also had to hunt for. I really need to make a thorough check to see if any payphones remain at all.
Date: Sat, 26 Feb 2011 09:13:59 -0800 (PST) From: "Mark J. Cuccia" <markjcuccia@yahoo.com> To: telecomdigestmoderator.remove-this@and-this-too.telecom-digest.org. Subject: VeriZon/GTE/Bell Atlantic/etc. (was VeriZon Screwed Me) Message-ID: <10964.22436.qm@web31103.mail.mud.yahoo.com> On Thursday 24-February-2011, David Kaye <sfdavidkaye2@yahoo.com> wrote: > Just a reminder that this is Verizon (the former GTE et al) and not > Verizon Wireless, a different (and more competent) company. Then Bill Horne (Telecom Digest Moderator) added: > ***** Moderator's Note ***** > > Verizon is the former NYNEX/Bell Titanic [sic] merger, and it picked > up GTE etc. after that. Not exactly. Bell Atlantic took over NYNEX two or three years BEFORE the merger with GTE, the LATTER (the takeover of GTE) is really what formed VeriZon (landline). The Bell Atlantic/NYNEX merger was announced on Tuesday 22-April-1996, and went through more than a year of the regulatory/stockholder/etc. approval process, the effective date of the merger was on effective on Tuesday 01-September-1997, when the Bell Atlantic name began replacing the NYNEX name in the states of legacy New York Tel (NY, Greenwich/Byram CT) and New England Tel & Tel (ME/NH/VT, MA/RI). Bell Atlantic (which now included former NYNEX) and GTE (what still remained of it, and which since 1990/91 included what remained of the former Contel) announced on Monday 27-July-1998 their intent to merge. The regulatory/stockholder/etc. approval process took about two years for this merger. Prior to the effective date of the BA/GTE merger for the landline sides, the WIRELESS sides merged, which also included some other wireless licenses in the US as well as Vodafone in the UK and Europe. I don't know all of the specifics of the ownership and such of the wireless side though, but I do know that Vodafone is (or was) involved in VeriZon. This was effective in March/April 2000 when the VeriZon name was formally announced for the first time. Also in Spring 2000, Telus in Canada announced a re-organization of their landline structure, since legacy GTE had owned the telco landline operations in some or most of two provinces for decades. GTE (through its Anglo-Canadian subsidiary) had owned just over 50% of British Columbia Telephone Company since the 1950s, which has been the incumbent landline telco for MOST of the Province of British Columbia. In 1967, GTE (again through its subsidiary Anglo-Canadian) purchased "QuebecTel" (NOT to be confused with "Telebec", another telco in Quebec), which was a growing consolidation of a number of local independent telcos in eastern and southeastern Quebec. Again, GTE/Anglo-Canadian owned just over 50% of QuebecTel. Bell Canada is NOT the "only" telco in Quebec and Ontario though; there always have been, and still are, several small towns scattered across Ontario and Quebec served by their own local telcos). And even in other provinces, there have been small and mid-size telcos which are considered "independent", since they are not owned by one of the "dominant provincial telcos". The "dominant provincial telcos" are not considered "independents" by the Canadian telco industry, even though they are not necessarily owned by Bell Canada. The definition of "independent" in Canada is not "exactly" the same as here in the US. Circa 1998, (partially) GTE-held BC-Tel and "Telus", which was the new name for the former AGT (Alberta Government Tel), which used to be owned by the Alberta provincial government prior to the 1990s-era, merged. The merged entity covering Alberta and most of British Columbia would carry the "Telus" name, the "BC-Tel" name was slowly eliminated over the next two years. GTE would own something like 20% to 30% of the new (merged AB/BC) Telus, although its voting stock was a bit lower than the actual amount owned. GTE/Anglo-Canadian still owned what it had of QuebecTel though. But in Spring 2000, at the time that the new VeriZon name was first announced for the merged wireless sides of Bell Atlantic, GTE, and others, Telus in Canada, and GTE/Anglo-Canadian, re-organized their association. GTE-soon-to-be-part-of-the-new-VeriZon would transfer most of their Anglo-Canadian holdings in QuebecTel to Canadian-based Telus, and the Quebec telco would be renamed Telus-Quebec, and adopt the Telus logo as well. (This really was one way that Telus, which was originally the old AGT, now began expanding into a national Canadian telecom entity). Thus ALL of the old GTE telco operations in Canada were now going to all be named "Telus", and be mostly owned by Telus. (In late 2004, Telus purchased all of VeriZon/legacy-GTE's Canadian holdings, thus ending legacy GTE telco operations in most of BC and part of Quebec). The landline sides of Bell Atlantic (including old NYNEX) and GTE (including what remained of Contel) became effective on Monday 03-July-2000, and it was already publicly known since Spring 2000 (when the wireless mergers were effective and the VeriZon name was publicly announced to apply to that wireless side), that the VeriZon name would also now apply to the landline side, and begin to replace the Bell Atlantic and GTE names. NOTE that I mention "what remained of" for Contel and even GTE. Both companies did grow leading up to the 1970s, in the number of other small and mid-size independent telcos that they had been buying out for several decades. But starting in the 1970s/80s-era, both GTE and Contel began selling off individual exchanges here-and-there, as well as selling off entire states where they previously operated, after having acquired smaller telcos in those states. Circa 1970, GT&E had operations in 35 states, as well as in Canada (as mentioned above), and the Dominican Republic. GT&E also once owned PLDT, Philippine Long Distance Telephone, the dominant local and toll provider in most of the Philippines (there were some other smaller "independent" telcos as well), but by 1967, Marcos and his family and friends "nationalized" PLDT. Hawaii was also one of those 35 states where GTE had been located. ALL of Hawaii was owned by GTE. GTE also owned SOME exchanges in Alaska as well. Circa 1970, Contel had expanded its size, owning exchanges in as many as 42 states. This included a number of exchanges scattered about Alaska as well. Contel also owned some exchanges in Canada -- in Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick. And Contel partially owned (with the local island government, or with Cable & Wireless, telcos in several "British" Caribbean islands. During the 1970s/80s-era, GTE pulled out of five states where they previously owned exchanges, and Contel pulled out of twelve states. Contel sold off their Alaskan exchanges to PTI. Bell Canada took over Contel's Ontario exchanges. Several "independent" telcos in Quebec took over Contel's Quebec exchanges. Bell-held New Brunswick Telephone took over one-time Contel in St.Clair NB. Contel's "British" Caribbean telcos were usually "nationalized" by the new emerging hard-left Marxist regimes in the Caribbean-area at the time -- this happened to Contel in Grenada, Trinidad, Guyana (on the north coast of S.America but is more associated with the "British" Caribbean), and even their operations in Jamaica. I think that Contel's operations in Barbados and in parts of the Bahamas were retained the longest, into the 1980s, when Contel chose to leave the region on their own. In the US mainland, GTE and Contel sold off some states to local small local independent telcos, as well as to the growing CenturyTel, or even swapped areas with each other. GTE (what remained of it) bought what remained of Contel in 1990/91, and began renaming the former Contel exchanges as GTE exchanges. But also from 1992-95, GTE sold off entire states of Contel and even long time GTE, some to other smaller independents, and some to Citizens Tel and Alltel. ALL of GTE and former Contel in West Virginia was sold off in 1992 to Citizens Tel (which in 1991 would buy out Frontier/ Rochester Tel/etc. from Bermuda-based Global Crossing, and then change its name to Frontier over the next few years. In 1995, GTE sold off all former Contel in upper New England to a consortium of local telcos, most of which would later consolidate in 2000 to form the new "FairPoint". And even after GTE/Contel was taken over by Bell Atlantic/NYNEX to form VeriZon, in 2000, many former GTE or Contel area were sold by VeriZon to others. Some of these sales of old GTE/Contel were actually negotiated by GTE in the late 1990s, prior to VeriZon though. Old GTE in Alaska was sold off by VeriZon in 2000, to a consortium of local independent telcos in Alaska, which divided those exchanges amongst themselves. Old GTE (including Contel in many cases) in Kentucky, Missouri, Arkansas, Alabama, Minnesota, etc. was sold off by VeriZon in 2000 and 2002 to CenturyTel, Citizens-soon-Frontier, and Alltel. GTE/Contel in Iowa was sold off by VeriZon to the new Iowa Telecom, which was formed by Iowa Network Services to buy out Iowa's legacy GTE/Contel. (Iowa Telecom is now part of "Windstream", the 2006 merged entity of Alltel and Valor). GTE in Oklahoma, SOME GTE/Contel in parts of Texas, and what remained of GTE/Contel in New Mexico was sold off by VeriZon in 2000 to the newly formed "Valor", which has since merged in 2006 with Alltel's landline to form Windstream). VeriZon sold off legacy GTE/Hawaii to the Carlyle Group in 2005, the new name for the telco is Hawaiian Telcom. Also in 2005, VZ sold off legacy GTE in the Mariana Islands in the Pacific (Saipan/Tinian/Rota) to the Philippine-based Pacific Telecom Inc (NOT to be confused with the PTI in the western/mid-west US including Alaska, which was taken over by CenturyTel in 2007/08). In 2006, VeriZon announced that they were pulling out of the Caribbean area, where legacy GTE had operations. In 1995, GTE bought into the PR-Government-partially-held Puerto Rico Tel Co, but GTE still didn't own PRTC completely. GTE (through Anglo-Canadian) owned the majority of Codetel in the Dominican Republic, for decades. And in the early 1990s, GTE bought a small percentage of "CANTV" in Venezuela. These all became part of VeriZon in 2000 when BA/NYNEX took over legacy GTE/Contel. VeriZon was going to sell-off their Caribbean holdings to American Movil, which was mostly a group which had large holdings in TelMex. VZ was successful in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic in selling off their holdings, but they mostly lost out w/r/t CANTV in Venezuela, since hard-left Marxist Hug Chavez nationalized the VZ/GTE holdings in the meantime. In the Dominican Republic, the Codetel name was replaced with VeriZon-Dominicana in 2000, but with VZ pulling out in the 2006-08 period, the Codetel name has returned. In 2004, when VeriZon announced that they were going to sell off legacy GTE-Hawaiian Telephone Company, they also announced that they wanted to exit New York State. GTE had sold their NY State exchanges to Contel in the 1970s/80s-era, but re-acquired those exchanges in 1991 when GTE bought out Contel, and GTE also acquired the long-time Contel exchanges in NY State as well. But by the mid-1990s, GTE sold off ALL of this to Citizens-Tel (now Frontier). VeriZon now wanted to sell off New York Tel, a legacy BOC! VZ would still retain the New York City Metro LATA #132, which includes Long Island (except Fishers Island), and also includes the lower Hudson River Valley counties of Westchester, Rockland, Putnam, and PART of Orange, and also the Connecticut ratecenters of Byram/Greenwich which are VZ/NYTel and not SNET. But everything else in NY State outside of the NYC Metro LATA #132 would be sold off. To date, NOTHING FURTHER has happened regarding this proposed sell-off. But in 2006, VeriZon announced that they wanted to sell off the BOC operations (New England Tel & Tel) in the three upper New England of ME/NH/VT, And VeriZon wanted to sell off GTE (and what still remained of legacy Contel) in the five Midwest states, OH/MI/IN/IL/WI. GTE was in all five states (some areas were sold off over the years). Legacy Contel was never in Ohio (there is an Ohio town named "Continental OH" which has had its own local telco of the same name, but that was NEVER part of Contel; today this Ohio telco is part of TDS), and Contel had sold off their Michigan and Wisconsin exchanges before being bought by GTE in 1990/91. When GTE was selling off GTE and Contel in the early 1990s after having just acquired Contel, they sold Georgia GTE and Contel to Alltel, and ACQUIRED Alltel in MI/IN/IL in return -- these had been renamed GTE-then-VeriZon, and these would be part of any VZ sale of exchanges in that part of the Midwest. In January 2007, VeriZon announced that the BOC states of ME/NH/VT of legacy New England Tel & Tel would be sold to FairPoint, while the legacy NET&T states of MA/RI would still be retained by VeriZon. This was completed in April 2008, and it also required some rewiring of customer loops/switches and re-homing of switches/tandems w/r/t MA/NH and MA/VT. Also remember that in 1995 GTE sold off all 1990/91 acquired legacy Contel in these same three states of ME/NH/VT. Thus FairPoint has MOST of the exchanges in all three states, both old Contel and legacy BOC NET&T, although there are a few other small local independent telcos in all three states. Then in May 2009, VeriZon announced that they were going to sell off ALL exchanges in numerous states, and SOME exchanges in California. This included ALL of legacy BOC C&P-West Virginia (which includes the Crows-Hematite VA ratecenter which gets dialtone from White Sulphur Sprints WV). Frontier (formerly Citizens, as well as Rochester Tel/ etc) would acquire all of this. Remember that Citizens bought out all of GTE/Contel in West Virginia circa 1992 when GTE sold all of that. Citizens (pre-Frontier) also acquired Alltel in West Virginia. Thus, with a few exceptions of a handful of small local independent telcos in WV, Frontier now has virtually ALL exchanges in West Virginia, which includes legacy Bell (C&P-WV), legacy GTE/Contel, and old Alltel. NOTE though, that some ratecenters' customer-loops in WV used to get dialtone from VZ/BA/C&P-MD based c.o.switches, and vice-versa, some customer-loops in MD used to get dialtone from once-VZ/BA/C&P-WV based c.o.switches being sold to Frontier/Citizens. These customers in each state have been re-wired to c.o.switches in their own states, from incumbent telcos for their own post-2010 states. This is similar to what happened in 2008 with VZ selling NET&T in ME/NH/VT to FairPoint with cross-border dialtone needing to be re-aligned with MA/NH and MA/VT. In both cases, local/EAS is retained. In WV/MD, both the retained VZ/BA/C&P-MD and the now-Frontier/Citizens (formerly- VZ/BA/C&P-WV) areas are in the same Hagerstown MD LATA and all home on the same Cumberland MD tandem. The 2009 sale which was effective 01-July-2010 was MOSTLY of remaining legacy GTE/Contel that VeriZon was now selling to Frontier. Only some legacy GTE/Contel exchanges in California bordering OR/NV/AZ were sold to Frontier, VeriZon retaining the rest of (what remained of) legacy GTE/Contel in CA. (In the mid-1990s, GTE did sell off a FEW CA-based exchanges to Citizens-pre-Frontier, though). VeriZon also sold-off to Frontier in 2009/10 legacy GTE including any legacy Contel in other states, such as those five Midwest states (OH/MI/IN/IL/WI) that it had referenced in 2006, as well as legacy GTE (including any legacy Contel) in NC/SC (Contel-then-GTE-now-VZ Knotts Island NC is retained by VeriZon though), WA, OR, ID, NV, AZ. Some of these states that VeriZon was selling off to Frontier had only legacy "longtime" GTE, some states had old GTE and old Contel that GTE acquired in 1990/91, and some states had only old Contel that GTE acquired in 1990/91. Also Michigan had both old GTE and GTE-acquired Alltel, while both Illinois and Indiana had old GTE as well as GTE-acquired Alltel AND GTE-acquired Contel, all of this sold to Frontier/Citizens in 2009/10. With this huge 2009/10 sale by VeriZon to Frontier/Citizens last year, VeriZon still retains the following legacy telcos and states: - Bell Atlantic including NYNEX, although NYNEX/NET&T in ME/NH/VT were sold to FairPoint in 2007/08 (NYNEX/NET&T MA/RI is still retained); (BA/C&P-WV including Crows-Hematite VA was sold to Frontier/Citizens) - old GTE including any Contel in... Pennsylvania and Virginia, both being legacy "Bell Atlantic states", and VZ has integrated day-to-day operations for these legacy GTE and Contel exchanges into that of neighboring legacy Bell Atlantic operations. This also includes the legacy Contel Knotts Island NC exchange retained by VeriZon after 2009/10, even though everything else GTE/Contel in NC was sold to Frontier/Citizens. Knotts Island NC does have its own c.o.switch, a remote hosted from Virginia, and is part of the Norfolk VA LATA. There is local/EAS with Norfolk VA as well, which has both legacy BOC C&P-VA and other legacy Contel in the vicinity on the Virginia side; Florida -- all of the Tampa Bay area which has been GTE for decades; (There USED to be Contel in the northern parts of Florida until the mid/late 1980s, most of this sold to Centel-later-Sprint/Centel-now- CenturyLink, one Contel exchange sold in the mid-1970s to what is now Frontier-legacy-Rochester-Tel, and another Contel exchange sold in the 1980s to Alltel-now-Windstream); Texas -- remaining GTE-including-Contel -- there were a number of GTE including old Contel exchanges sold by VeriZon in 2000 to the new "Valor" telco, Valor now part of Windstream since 2006, but VeriZon did retain most of GTE/Contel in Texas in 2000, this also being retained with 2009/10; California -- most GTE/Contel retained by VZ in 2009/10, although a few CA exchanges bordering OR (GTE-West Coast Tel), NV (Contel), AZ (Contel) were sold to Frontier/Citizens in 2009/10; And a few old CA GTE/Contel exchanges were sold by GTE to Citizens-pre-Frontier in 1995. I wonder what else is going to be sold by VeriZon or anyone else in the next several years? CenturyLink has grown since CenturyTel's acquisition in 2008/09 of Embarq-once-Sprint-once-United-also-Centel, and now CenturyLink wants to takeover Qwest/US-West/legacy Mountain Bell, Northwestern Bell, Pacific Northwest Bell. Windstream has been growing some in the past few years, and Frontier has acquired other independent telcos as well. Anyhow, Bell Atlantic bought out NYNEX, announced in 1996, officially effective in September 1997. The Bell Atlantic name replaced the NYNEX name at this time. The VeriZon name wasn't implemented at this time, and probably hadn't even been thought of by anyone in BA. It was in 1998 when Bell Atlantic (including old NYNEX) and (what remained of) GTE (including what remained of Contel) announced their merger, which also would include several other wireless entities also involved including Vodafone. The wireless entities' merger or joint-venture was effective with Spring 2000 as the new entity "VeriZon Wireless". But it wasn't until Summer 2000 when the landline BA/NYNEX merger with GTE/Contel took effect, also now adopting the VeriZon name. However, there were some reorganizations of GTE's Canadian landline telcos and Telus with Spring 2000, VZ/GTE exiting Canada in 2004. And since 2000 VZ has sold off several other GTE and/or Contel operations in the US and elsewhere, the most recent being the 2009/10 sale to Frontier, although GTE sold off GTE and Contel in the early-to-mid-1990s shortly after buying out Contel in 1990/91, and even in the 1970s/80s both GTE and Contel were selling off some territory in the US and elsewhere. Mark J. Cuccia markjcuccia at yahoo dot com Lafayette LA, formerly of New Orleans LA pre-Katrina
TELECOM Digest is an electronic journal devoted mostly to telecom- munications topics. It is circulated anywhere there is email, in addition to Usenet, where it appears as the moderated newsgroup 'comp.dcom.telecom'. TELECOM Digest is a not-for-profit, mostly non-commercial educational service offered to the Internet by Bill Horne. All the contents of the Digest are compilation-copyrighted. You may reprint articles in some other media on an occasional basis, but please attribute my work and that of the original author. The Telecom Digest is moderated by Bill Horne. Contact information: Bill Horne Telecom Digest 43 Deerfield Road Sharon MA 02067-2301 781-784-7287 bill at horne dot net Subscribe: telecom-request@telecom-digest.org?body=subscribe telecom Unsubscribe: telecom-request@telecom-digest.org?body=unsubscribe telecom This Digest is the oldest continuing e-journal about telecomm- unications on the Internet, having been founded in August, 1981 and published continuously since then. Our archives are available for your review/research. We believe we are the oldest e-zine/mailing list on the internet in any category! URL information: http://telecom-digest.org Copyright (C) 2009 TELECOM Digest. All rights reserved. Our attorney is Bill Levant, of Blue Bell, PA. --------------------------------------------------------------- Finally, the Digest is funded by gifts from generous readers such as yourself who provide funding in amounts deemed appropriate. Your help is important and appreciated. A suggested donation of fifty dollars per year per reader is considered appropriate. See our address above. Please make at least a single donation to cover the cost of processing your name to the mailing list. All opinions expressed herein are deemed to be those of the author. Any organizations listed are for identification purposes only and messages should not be considered any official expression by the organization.
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